The Golden Horn Wall

The wall facing towards the Golden Horn, where in later times most seaborne traffic was conducted, stretched for a total length of 5,600 metres from the cape of St. Demetrius to the Blachernae, where it adjoined the Land Walls. Although much of the wall was demolished in the 1870s, during the construction of the railway line, its course and the position of most gates and towers is known with accuracy. It was built further inland, up to 40 metres from the shore, and was ca. 10 metres tall, with 17 gates and 110 towers. The gates were, in order:
  • the Gate of Eugenios (Pylē Evgeniou), leading to the Prosphorion harbour. It was named after the nearby 4th century Tower of Eugenius, where the great chain that closed the entrance to the Golden Horn was kept and suspended from. The gate was also called Marmaroporta ("Marble Gate"), because it was covered in marble. In Turkish it is named Yalýköþkü Kapýsý.
  • the Gate of Bonos (Porta Vōnou).
  • the Neorion Gate (Pylē Neōriou, "Shipyard Gate") or Horaia Gate (Ōraia Pylē, "Beautiful Gate").
  • the Ikanatissa Gate (Porta Ikanatissēs).
  • the Gate of St. Mark (Porta Agiou Markou) or Hebrew Gate (Evraikē Pylē), as it led to suburbs inhabited by Venetians and Jews, modern Balýkpazarý Kapýsý.
  • the Gate of the Perama (Pylē Peramatos) from which the ferry to Pera (Galata) sailed.
  • the Gate of St. John of Cornibus, in Turkish Zindan Kapýsý
  • the Gate of the Drungarii (Pylē Drouggariōn), modern Odunkapýsý.
  • the Ayazma Kapýsý Gate.
  • the Gate of the Plateia (Pylē Plateias), modern Unkapaný Kapýsý.
  • the Gate of Eis Pegas (Pylē eis Pēgas), modern Cibali Kapýsý.
  • the St. Theodosia Gate (Pylē Agias Theodosias), modern Ayakapý.
  • the Gate of Dexiokrates (Pylē Dexiokratous), modern Yenikapý.
  • the Petrion Gate (Pylē Petriou, Turkish Petri Kapýsý), one of the two gates of the Petrion Fort, formed by a double stretch of walls. The gate of the fort's inner wall, which led to the city, was called the Gate of Diplophanarion.
  • the Phanar Gate (Pylē Fanariou, Turkish Fener Kapý), the second gate of the Petrion Fort, named after the local lighthouse. It was in this area that the Venetians under Enrico Dandolo successfully climbed the walls in 1204.
  • the Royal Gates (Vasilikai Pylai), in Turkish Balat Kapý ("Palace Gate"), which led to the Palace of Blachernae.
  • the Kynegos Gate (Pylē Kynēgou, "Gate of the Hunter").
  • the Gate of St. Anastasia (Pylē Agias Anastasias).
  • the Koiliomene Gate (Koiliōmenē Porta), in Turkish Ayvansaray Kapýsý near the Church of St. Thecla.

Fortifications around Constantinople

Several fortifications were built at various periods in the vicinity of Constantinople, and can be said to have formed an integrated defensive system along with the city's main walls. The first and greatest of these is the 56 km long Anastasian Wall (Greek Anastaseio Teichos), built in the mid-5th century as an outer defense to Constantinople, some 65 km westwards of the city. It was 3.30 m thick and over 5 m high, but its effectiveness was limited, and it was abandoned at some time in the 7th century for want of resources to maintain and men to man it. For centuries thereafter, its materials were used in local buildings, but several parts are still extant.

The oldest surviving map of Constantinople, dated from 1422. The fortifications of Constantinople and of Galata, at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, are prominently featured. The water trench in front of the Theodosian walls at the western end of the city is also depicted, as well as the Maiden's Tower in the middle of the Bosporus. The oldest surviving map of Constantinople, dated from 1422. The fortifications of Constantinople and of Galata, at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, are prominently featured. The water trench in front of the Theodosian walls at the western end of the city is also depicted, as well as the Maiden's Tower in the middle of the Bosporus.

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